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Japanese scientist analyzed the changes in water temperature at the surface of the Greenland Sea from 1957 to the present, and then compare this with the global climate change, fixed in the same period.
By slovms Nakamura, temperature fluctuations Grenladskogo sea are a sure indicator of changes in the direction of warm and cold currents of the Atlantic Ocean, occurring on average once every 70 years. Thus, the next cycle of global warming is now nearing completion, and by the mid-2010s replaced by a new trend in the cold snap.
However, scientists warn that this model does not take into account the impact of greenhouse gases on global warming.
«VKontakte” unlocked one of the largest of their communities MDK, access to which resource guide previously closed due to spam. This is stated in a message on the band «Live Express”, which publishes news on the social network.
“Unlock the community that has been locked for advertising violations – written, in particular, administrators community. – The mistakes administrators should not suffer people who are deprived of content.”
now have previously blocked communities is a temporary block – until 28 August – the publication of any link and repost. These include the MDK, Trollface, “Kotal,” etc. If the administrators group will try to circumvent a technical restriction on the publication of references in the period of the ban, the community may be blocked permanently.
MDK, recall, numbering about three million subscribers,
guide social network “VKontakte” states that the tax authorities of Ukraine in Kiev seized servers belonging to the company.
According to company founder Paul Durov, the cost of the seized equipment – half a million dollars.
“As a result, video and audio content for the Ukrainian people to boot slower, since all data is delivered directly from St. Petersburg” – he wrote on his page on the network VKontakte “.
Ukrainian investigators referred to a court order authorizing the search warrant as part of a criminal investigation of tax evasion with respect to the local company “Evos”.
However, as the technical director of “VKontakte” Nikolay Durov it to them has nothing to do.
strange looks at the history and the fact that the hosting company Dataix, the Kyiv office of which were searched, serves more than 200 companies, including such well-known as Yandex, Mail.ru Group and RuTube, but complaints about the removal of the equipment received only from the representatives’ VKontakte “.
According to a search warrant, a copy of which has placed the administration of social networks on the Internet, it was issued on June 25, and investigations initiated by the State Tax Inspectorate Desnyanskogo district of Kiev.
“The court decided to authorize a search of office and ancillary facilities on the street. Gaidar, 50 in Kiev, which belong to” date-ayiks YUEY “and in which the server is located society with documents about the economic activity of LLC” Evos “- said in court ruling. According to investigators, the servers can be stored financial records.
About “VKontakte” the document does not say a word. However, according to its technical director, operatives, who came with a search for a hosting provider, seized all the equipment they could carry, including those belonging to the “VKontakte”.
He suggests that the seizure of servers can be the result of “a showdown between some Ukrainian telecommunications companies”.
According to Pavel Durov, seized on the server only stores video and audio materials, and any documents there may not be.
“I hope that the supervisory authorities of Ukraine quickly solve the issue associated with the abuse they suffer from millions of Ukrainian people. From our side we begin to expand our Frankfurt hub,” – he says.
social network “VKontakte” in recent string of troubles plaguing the country.
In July 2012 an informal antipedofilskoe movement “Headhunters” Press , and the head of Paul Durov – criminal charges, arguing that the resource disseminates information about pedophilia and pornography.
In April 2013, investigators Press in the center of the city and the apartment Pavel Durov – under pretext of a criminal investigation of driving over traffic policeman in what was suspected founder of “VKontakte”. Here in the media reported that Durov allegedly decided to emigrate to the United States – which Press .
prosecution Durov was stopped – it turned out that he did not press a police car – and the case was reclassified to administrative article.
Russian press has been suggested that the charges and searches in the office could be associated with Press investment fund owned by top managers of Rosneft, to which Durov has spoken.
At this trouble, “VKontakte” not over. In May Roscomnadzor Press – as it later turned out, by mistake: “employee is not there ticked”.
© Apple Inc.
MOSCOW, June 26 – RIA Novosti. our online store Apple Store earned in Russia, it is available at store.apple.com / ru, reports Digit.ru.
The site contains a wide range of popular vehicles Apple – PC Mac, tablets iPad, smart phones iPhone, your iPod. On the resource indicated that the buyers purchase vehicles directly from Apple.
Earlier in February Digit.ru reported that Apple is looking for Russian-speaking manager for the formation of a team of consultants that will work with the users of the online store Apple. Indirect it meant that there was a preparation for the launch of the online store Apple Store in Russia. Experts interviewed by the publication then, said that now there is a chance that the official sales of new devices will start in the domestic market more quickly than at present.
© RIA Novosti Infographics. Ilya Kanygin / Polina Chemeris
prices in the official online store Apple Store in Russia were lower by computers, but higher on the iPhone smart phones, compared with a number of Russian retailers or even the official Apple stores in Europe – but with prices in the Russian branch of the U.S. is not yet able to compete . Read more >>
What new Apple will introduce in 2013
Apple is preparing to showcase their innovations in software, services and devices in the annual conference of the Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC) – according to the experts, some of them may be new versions of the platforms iOS and OS X, online music service, the next generation the iPad and innovative computer in the form of hours. Read more >>
Company Apple opened in a Russian company online store. Apple Online Store offers a full range of products – iPhone, iPad, Mac, iPod, as well as any accessories to gadgets, including third-party manufacturers.
In addition, visitors to the resource can get free advice from a specialist. The Russian Apple Store is also offered to make the assembly a Mac considering its requirements, order a free laser engraving on the iPad, iPod touch or iPod nano.
company offers free shipping Russians selected gadgets. However, this service is only valid for residents of Moscow and St. Petersburg, and only if the order exceeds 4,000 rubles. Pay for goods by wire transfer, credit cards, and cash upon receiving the order.
Presentation Apple-2013: Mac Pro – a super-duper!
I can be called a human being biased, but from everything that was shown yesterday in San Francisco, Tim Cook and his team, the most interesting – it is a new station Mac Pro. OSes, of course, it is wonderful, but …
computer system with an unusual shape damn high performance – it really is a new step. And this is actually the continuation of the traditions of Steve Jobs, who tried to combine performance with a unique design. When Steve in the mid 80-ies of the last century vzashey kicked out of Apple, he created a computer Next, the body of which represented a perfect cube. A quarter of a century, his followers have created a perfect cylinder (read more)
Russian carrier rocket “Soyuz ST-B», launched on Tuesday 25 June from the European Spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana, has successfully placed into orbit, all four satellites O3b Networks, the press service of Arianespace. O3b satellites are designed to provide affordable access to the Internet. The launch was broadcast live on the company’s website Arianespace.
This launch “Union” was the fifth from Kourou. The first-ever launch of the Russian rocket from the Baikonur outside the former Soviet Union on 22 October 2011. Then the “Union of CT-B” was launched from Kourou. Earlier, the “union” can be run with only two launch sites – from Baikonur in Kazakhstan and Plesetsk in the Arkhangelsk region.
previously reported that the rocket launch postponed twice due to bad weather conditions in the upper atmosphere. First launch postponed for a day, and then another half an hour due to bad weather.
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«The Holy Grail ‘of historical cryptography can be decrypted
« Shroud of Turin “in the book, the famous” Voynich manuscript “of the 15-th century is considered the most mysterious texts ever found, which is Throughout the century itself resists any attempts to decipher. The fact is that similar as in the manuscript writing is not found anywhere else. In addition to the countless attempts to decode been made more than 25 attempts to analyze the text by the best brains of the planet, which also failed. This has led some to conclude that the manuscript is probably just a sophisticated hoax. One can assume that this book – a typical 20th century cultural studies play. But scientists suspect that the Voynich manuscript – “a story that probably we will never know».
A new study published in the journal «Plos One», suggests that the manuscript does contain a certain message, and may have been written with the purpose to conceal important information. The main conclusion of the researchers, “the text is written in an artificial language, which has a clear logical structure».
According to unconfirmed reports radiocarbon dating, the book was written between 1404 and 1438 years.
Multiple studies have shown that an unknown language of the manuscript, now kept in the Library of Rare Books Beyneke Yale University. has similarities with existing languages, and the latest results reinforce the hypothesis that the text does have a meaningful words and messages.
theoretical physicist Marcelo Montemarro from the University of Manchester, UK, has spent on the analysis of linguistic patterns of the manuscript for many years and am confident that closer to unraveling its mysteries. With computer statistical method for studying patterns of arrangement of words, Dr. Mantemarro and his colleagues found evidence that having some sense of the words are found in clusters of the text where they are needed as part of a written message. More or less, based semantic network shown, those words have a common structural properties – and this is the pattern that is observed in known languages.
According to Dr. Montemarro these patterns suggest that the Voynich manuscript is not a hoax. “Now the manuscript is not so easy to dismiss as meaningless set of words, as it demonstrates a significant linguistic structured,” he says. It is unlikely that these patterns were deliberately included in the text as part of the drawing, such as knowledge of the linguistic structures of the manuscript at the time did not exist.
As for the meaning of the text, it is still unsolved. According to Craig Bauer, author of the book “The Secret History: The history of cryptology,” manuscript may contain some important message. Initially, Dr. Bauer believed Voynich manuscript hoax, but recent findings have forced him to change his mind, and now he and Dr. Montemarro similar in their position: “For the manuscript is really a kind of story that we may never know».
Voynich Manuscript, free download
Meanwhile, skeptics opening Montemurro not persuaded. “Wop said nothing new – says Gordon Rugg, a professor at Keele University (UK). – This similarity of the statistical characteristics, but does not like, in principle, already seen quite a while. ” Rugg says that any text-mystification, obeying the laws of normal language, no problem you can make, without giving it any special meaning. Moreover, he even invented such a text, a sort voynichevskoy “Glock Kuzdra” that once “Steck budlanula bokra and kurdyachit bokrenka».
Voynich Manuscript was revealed to the public in an age of great scientific fraud – in the first quarter of the 20th century. To date, the great historical falsifications presumably include Phaistos disk piltdaunsky Cherp and some other strange discoveries. Many suspected Voynich himself and that he had fabricated the manuscript. As a trader antique books, he could have the necessary knowledge and skills, and the “lost book” Bacon could have a high cost. Recent studies have discarded this hypothesis. But perhaps this book – a typical 20th century cultural studies play. Not surprisingly, if it turns out that this is supposedly a hoax created by the former revolutionary underground worker, a lover of ciphers and a married man, forced to look to the United States livelihood. However, perhaps the “Voynich Manuscript” was created and the first ever of its owner or to his order: it was George Baresch (Georg Baresch) , an alchemist who lived in Prague in the early XVII century. For alchemists such manuscripts were not such a rarity, it was more of their culturogical game.
Impact on popkult
There are several examples that the Voynich manuscript influenced, at least indirectly, on some samples of popular culture. For example, the document is inspired by Italian architect and industrial designer Luigi Serafini in the creation of the book Codex Seraphinianus. This book of 360 pages is a fictional world encyclopedia, written by “unknown language” and contains a surreal, colorful illustrations.
In the work of HP Lovecraft is the book “Necronomicon”. Despite the fact that Lovecraft probably did not know about the Voynich manuscript, Colin Wilson (born Colin Wilson) published in 1969, the story “The Return Loigora”, where the character discovers that the Voynich manuscript – it’s unfinished “Necronomicon”.
modern composer Hanspeter Kyburz (Hanspeter Kyburz) wrote a short piece of music based on the Voynich manuscript, read it as part of the musical score.
In fiction novel by Dan Simmons “Olympus” (2007) is a French scientist Henri Delacour created the first workable model of a time machine, based on the technology bubble Alcubierre, to go back to 1478 and meet the creator of the Voynich manuscript. The experiment gets out of control, and the false vacuum, break out of the cocoon of the power machine begins to destroy everything around.
Drawings and font reminiscent of the Voynich manuscript, can be seen in the movie “Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade” (English Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade).
story «Il Romanzo Di Nostradamus» Evandzhelisti Valerio (Valerio Evangelisti) is the Voynich manuscript as a composition of black magic adepts, from which the famous French astrologer Nostradamus fought all his life.
In the computer game-style quest “Broken Sword 3: The Sleeping Dragon” (English Broken Sword III: The Sleeping Dragon) Publisher DreamCatcher text of the Voynich manuscript decrypts the hacker, who then killed neotampliery because the manuscript contains information about places on earth which are “geomantic energy».
strip «Voynich Manuscript» (translation) webcomic xkcd manuscript is the leadership role-playing game.
Voynich Manuscript plays a key role in the novel “After the Exodus,” Harry Veda. It turns out that manuscript is the key to time travel.
Sources: ancient-origins.net , wikipedia.org and gearmix.ru .
Voynich Manuscript – the mysterious medieval manuscript written in an unknown language, alphabet unknown and has not been translated, – yet not a fake, learned Italian physicist.
dispute that cryptographers, mathematicians and linguists are carrying around this artifact has been one hundred years old, continues: some call it a clever fake, others insist on its authenticity. In the latest issue of the journal Plos One provides further evidence that the mysterious manuscript has not been tampered. The authors – a theoretical physicist Marcelo Montemurro of Manchester University, and his colleague from Argentina Damian Zanetti – treating an electronic version of the text of information theory, argue that they have found clusters of words clearly have meaning, and that, most likely, the manuscript contains some encrypted message.
First manuscript was born in the seventeenth century, although the radiocarbon method of writing it relates to the beginning of the fifteenth century.
According to the letter, detected in our own time, in 1639, the manuscript belonged to the Prague alchemist George Baresch. After the death of the alchemist’s manuscript changed hands at least twice, finally got to the Jesuits, and disappeared out of sight for two centuries: suppose that all this time he was kept in the library of the Collegio. In 1912, the Collegio Romano was in the strictest confidence to sell his collection of manuscripts, some of them were bought by Kaunas bibliophile and bookseller Wilfrid Voynich, and since that time it tried unsuccessfully to decipher.
In 1966, his widow Ethel Lilian Voynich (author of the novel in the USSR “The Gadfly”) sold the manuscript to another bookseller, who three years later gave the manuscript to Yale University, where he was kept till now time.
manuscript is written by hand on 240 pages of medieval parchment contains about 35,000 “words” composed of 20-30 characters, the text stripped of punctuation, almost every page is illustrated. Most often it is images of plants, and many consider him the ancient guide to poisons, but that’s an oddity: Almost all these plants are unknown today’s science.
However, strange things there in abundance. Language (if it is the language) is unlikely to apply to the European one, in any case, there is no connecting words consisting of one or two letters. Some find in it similarities with Hebrew, there is even a version of his Russian origins. Today, many are inclined to think that if the manuscript is not mindless imitation, he invented an artificial written language, have a clear logical structure.
curious that the manuscript was written sure hand, as if the language of the author, and these letters were accustomed.
Be that as it may, deciphering the text has not yet yielded any closer, the best cryptographers broke the world on his teeth. That’s why pretty soon there was a version that is not nothing but a very clever hoax: say, once the text is indecipherable, it’s just a bunch of gibberish, filigree attempt to mislead the reader, making him think that the meaning of it all -still there.
And it seems there really is. Montemurro, senior author of the paper in Plos One, argues that its use of technology identified in the text of “clusters” of words that are bound to specific illustrations. He did not elaborate on their grammar, not trying to decipher, he was just able to see the keywords and show that the frequency with which they occur in the text, under the same laws as the frequency of words in normal Nepridumannoe languages.
To reach this conclusion, the authors were subjected to the same analysis of the Latin texts, English-language “The Origin of Species” by Charles Darwin and many other texts.
As expected, the skeptics opening Montemurro not particularly persuaded.
«He did not say anything new – says one of them, Gordon Rugg, a professor at Keele University (UK). – Such similarity statistical characteristics, but does not like, has long been observed. ” Rugg argues that the text-mystification, obeying the laws of normal language, it is possible to make, without giving it any meaning. He even invented a text, something like voynichevskogo version of our “Glock Kuzdra”, which at one time, “Steck budlanula bokra and kurdyachit bokrenka».
Montemurro, however, remains convinced he was right: the text, they are analyzed, subject to the laws that are not in the seventeenth, even more so in the fifteenth century were not known. He agrees that his analysis of the majority of questions asked by the Voynich manuscript, left unanswered. For example, he can not say, invented language, or whether it already exists and deliberately distorted. He claims that the version of hoaxes remain untenable as long as its proponents do not present convincing evidence that identified them as complex semantic structures could get into a meaningless text.
«In this text, – he says – must stand a story that perhaps we will never know».
search of a new method for converting anatomical images were engaged neuroscientists at the University of Kyoto, Japan Research and Technology Agency, as well as specialists Research Center RIKEN. This was reported in the scientific journal article, Nature Neuroscience. The new method is called SeeDB.
About enlightenment of human tissue , including the brain, scientists have reflected a long time. Enlightenment is necessary for the study of the whole without dividing it into sections. The main difference between the Japanese and the now well-known method is that the drug is better preserves the anatomical shape of the sample. Furthermore, it is more compatible with lipophilic dyes are used for dyeing preparations preserved with formaldehyde.
Before the start of fructose, scientists held a series of experiments with various solutions. With their help, biologists have tried to change the index of refraction in different parts of the body: the higher the value, the less visible molecules of sugar and fat in the tissues. It was found that the ideal values ??appear using a solution of fructose.
adding a solution of some drugs , blocking the reaction between fructose and substances in the tissues of the body, the researchers conducted an experiment on embryos of mice, as well as on the brains of young and old rodents. After just three days of soaking the samples became transparent.
Image source riken.go.jp
Scientists believe that the use of fructose will examine all the organs of the body. Specifically, of particular interest is the brain. In the bleached state, biologists believe, experts will be able to trace the elements of the chains of neurons. Researchers agree that the coup their method will not, but significantly enhance the ability of scientists.
Today Russian cosmonauts Fyodor Yurchikhin and Alexander Misurkin come out in open space, where they will remain six o’clock.
“exit hatch opening scheduled at 17.40 MSK Monday, ending the spacewalk is scheduled for 23.40 MSK on the same day,” – told RIA Novosti in Moscow Mission Control Center (MCC) TsNIIMash.
Astronauts perform a number of technical problems. Among them – the replacement of the second panel liquid flow controller on the module “Zarya” and dismantling of equipment “Photon-Gamma” experiment “Molniya-Gamma”.
also Jurchihin Misurkin and install handrails soft on the service module “Zvezda” and test equipment system of rendezvous and docking “Course.” They also establish the holder of cable systems in the energy functional cargo module “Zarya”.For
Yurchikhin it will be the sixth spacewalk, and for Misurkin – the first in the career.
anniversary of the legendary race and for the first time took part with a team of Russian license G-Drive Racing and finished third in class LMP2. On the podium of the prestigious competition climbed Russian Roman Rusinov, Australian John Martin and Briton Mike Conway. Did not pass the race and death. At the start of an auto died Dane Allan Simonsen, reports from Le Mans reports “Kommersant” Ruslan pockets.
Russian driver Roman Rusinov admitted that he was glad to be on the podium with the Russian flag after the team “Oregi-Nissan” took third place in the class «LMP 2″ in the race “24 Hours of Le Mana ».
«I’m very happy with my performance, third place – a very good result. Especially pleased that we managed a decent performance at the anniversary race. Even though we had chances and to win. Unfortunately, there were technical problems, there were problems with the lighting, which is why the team lost three laps.
I am very pleased that we showed good speed. If I am not mistaken, this indicator we have surpassed all rivals. Each circle has been very difficult, but we managed fine and were among the contenders for the victory. Very pleased that I managed to pick up a Russian flag on the podium, “- quoted by ITAR-TASS as saying Rusinov.
Recall the winners of the overall standings competitions have become pilots “Audi” Tom Christensen, Loic Duval and Allan McNish. Ruthenians, who plays with John Martin and Mike Conway for the stable “Oregi-Nissan,” took in ninth place overall. In the class «LMP2» Rusinov crew finished third.
For Koreans become a good tradition – after the start of sales of the next flagship Galaxy S release its mini version, which differs relatively modest size (compared to the older model), and a less powerful stuffing. Not yet had time to gather Galaxy S4 enthusiastic fans of all of the new, as the Koreans prepared and published a model Galaxy S4 mini.
Externally, the model with the prefix “mini” copies the entire image of his older brother, and along with most of the latest models of the company (the crisis of design?). The younger brother of Galaxy S4 packed into the familiar on the older model body with rounded corners, which is made of glossy plastic (flexible and durable polycarbonate), which creates a sense of fiscal crafts – just like his older brother. But it is worth to mention that collected S4 mini pretty high quality and does not cause feelings of rejection.
Model Galaxy S4 mini not only shrank in size and lost weight – 107 grams vs 130 grams in S4, but also lost a powerful hardware platform and a large display. Downsizing has gone smartphone benefit – as opposed to the 5-inch Galaxy S4 its mini version will not be called “shovel” and S4 mini is much easier to use.
smartphone is equipped with a dual-core 1.7 GHz, 1.5 GB of RAM and an 8-gigabyte storage for user data (the amount of memory can be extended by microSD-cards). Cmartfon equipped with a 4.3-inch display Super AMOLED (960h540). Screen resolution mini-version is not only significantly lower than that of the display older brother (256 vs 440 ppi), but also plays on this parameter in many modern smartphones. But while the picture quality is very high and virtually identical to the Retina-display iPhone 4/4S.
also touched a set of wireless interfaces: Unlike his older brother S4 mini model does not allow “introduce” one-touch device – it does not have the module NFC. But all the other advanced wireless interfaces available – Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, GPS.
changed and the basic parameters of the camera: she lost 5 megapixels and has remained “only” 8 megapixels. Sensor front of the matrix – the same 2 megapixel. Despite the reduction in the resolution of the main camera, the picture quality Galaxy S4 mini is not much worse than his older brother, photos are a bit lost in the detail, but retained the natural colors, minimal noise and correct the white balance.
Replacement eight-processor dual-core rather significantly affected the performance of the smartphone. In specific benchmarks model S4 mini significantly inferior to his older brother, but in the process of exploitation is not so much evident – the smartphone has no trouble with any problems from Internet surfing to games.
gadget works under the operating system Android 4.2.2, and the shell TouchWiz is familiar to all fans of smart phones Samsung. The interface is simple and intuitive, which helps the Korean smart phone does not lose the old and gain new fans.
device is powered by the battery capacity of 1900 mAh, a charge which is enough for one and a half to two days of battery life – depending on how you use – for example, in video playback with the included wireless modules S4 mini lasted more than 10 hours. The indicator is very, very good – at least in some ways ahead of younger brother older.
dvuhsimochny Galaxy S4 mini should be on the market by the end of June, and its price is 20 thousand rubles. Official data on models with a single SIM have not been disclosed.
MOSCOW, June 20 – RIA Novosti. The level of education of Russian schoolchildren fall in recent years, said Thursday at a press – conference Rector of Lomonosov Moscow State University Viktor Sadovnichiy.
“For various reasons, the level of training of students is lower than it was 20 years ago. Clearly, this is a problem for society,” – he said.
© RIA Novosti Infographics
He said that every year the first year MSU receives about 7.5 thousand people. Of these, 4,000 received in low places, and 3.5 thousand – on a contract basis.
This year, the branch of Moscow State University in Pushchino, Moscow Region will open a new bio-technology department, said Sadovnichiy.
summer solstice – the importance of geographical and astronomical event that occurs in the solar system. In moments of solstice sun in its apparent motion along the ecliptic (an imaginary line in the firmament on which moves the sun in its apparent annual motion, ie the circle described by the Earth around the Sun) is the most removed from the celestial equator, reaches its greatest declination north or the south.
points ecliptic, the most distant from the celestial equator, through which the sun, called the solstices. This is such a moment in the annual rotation of the earth around the sun, when there is the shortest day and the shortest night.
There are summer and winter solstices. In the northern hemisphere summer solstice usually falls on June 21, and winter – December 21, (in the southern hemisphere – on the contrary).
© RIA Novosti Infographics
During the summer solstice, the Earth, resulting tilt on its axis to the plane of the ecliptic by 23 degrees with some facing towards the north pole of the Sun. At the South Pole at this time is the polar night.
Summer solstice – it’s the first day of summer in the northern hemisphere and the beginning of winter in the southern hemisphere, that is, if the residents of the northern part of the Earth from now are at the beginning of astronomical summer, the for residents of the southern hemisphere during the same time period will begin astronomical winter.
In the mid-latitudes in the spring and early summer, the sun rises every day above the horizon, and at the time of the summer solstice stops and changes its motion is reversed. Then it every day falls lower and, in the end, after the winter solstice again changes its motion to reverse and begins to climb.
For several days surrounding the solstice sun almost does not change the decline, its no ontime elevation in the sky almost unchanged; hence comes the name of the solstice.
summer solstice, when the sun has the greatest northern declination, comes 20 or June 21, depending on the year (due to the leap year date shift, solstice range 1-2 days). In astronomy, the summer solstice is taken as the beginning of summer – the sun enters into the sign of Cancer.
During the summer solstice in the northern hemisphere the sun longest stays above the horizon, 21 and 22 June – this is the longest day of the year, and with 21 June 22 – the shortest night.
In 2013, the astronomical summer comes 21 June 04 at 9:00 Moscow time (5:00 GMT, 04 minutes), when the sun moving along the ecliptic, reaches its greatest declination. For residents of the southern hemisphere winter begins astronomical.At the latitude of Moscow
The sun rises above the horizon to a height of more than 57 degrees.
During the summer solstice, the sun above 66.5 degrees latitude (the Arctic Circle) does not go beyond the horizon, and the day lasts all day and night. At the north pole of the Earth the sun moves across the sky at the same height around the clock. In such a situation it is very difficult to tell time. June 21 The sun crosses the meridian six hours and begins to descend on the ecliptic, entering the path of the autumnal equinox, when it crosses the celestial equator.
summer solstice has long been an occasion for celebration. Summer Solstice as one of the most important holidays in the life of revered even by the ancient Slavs and the Baltic nations. In Russia celebrated the Day of Ivan Kupala, in Latvia celebrate one of the most exciting holidays of the Republic – the days of Midsummer, which are official holidays, Estonia celebrates Midsummer Day, a holiday in Poland known as Sobotka, Ukraine – Kupaylo, Belarus – Midsummer.
Celtic peoples of Britain celebrated Lita – solstice, midsummer. The holiday has been closely associated with the pagan sun worship.
Americans and Canadians consider this the start of the summer, the Chinese, the Irish, the Japanese, the British – his swing.
material is based on information of open source
In the jungle of Mexico discovered a previously unknown Mayan city
text: Alexander Temples / Infox.ru
published June 21 ’13 19:09
Archaeologists stumbled upon the ruins of the Mayan city, lost in the jungle in the east of Mexico. Previously, the existence of the city was known only to local loggers that nobody talked about him.
On detection of the city, Reuters reported citing Professor Ivan Spraycha of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Spraych led the expedition, which was supported by the National Geographic Society of America conducted a preliminary examination of the ruins.
City, called Chaktun (“Red Rock”) occupies almost 22 hectares. For the first time, archaeologists noticed it, studying aerial photos of the Yucatan Peninsula. To get to the city, the scientists had almost three weeks hack through the jungle. On the way back, researchers have filled up the trail to the ruins were not able to get marauders.
members of the expedition spent a month and a half in the city and found in it the ruins of 15 stone pyramids, the height of the largest of which is 23 meters. Also Chaktune were found numerous stone stele and golf ball. In total, it is estimated that the maximum number of inhabitants of the city reached 30-40 thousand people.
Chaktuna heyday came in the VII-X century, after which he, like other stone Mayan cities were abandoned. There are signs, it is sometimes visited by a group of local loggers, but scientists about the existence Chaktuna no idea. Recall the recent scholars have suggested that the decline of the Mayan cities led immoderate deforestation.
Archaeologists have discovered in the jungles of eastern Mexico’s ancient Mayan city, culminating in the 600-900. BC.
The expedition, led by Professor Ivan Spraytsem from Slovenia, has found 15 pyramids, one of which is 23 meters in height, as well as the remains of ancient buildings, religious buildings and palaces.
Archaeologists named the city Chaktun, which translates as “Red Rock” or the “Big Stone”. Presumably, there could accommodate between 30 to 40 thousand people.Exploring the jungle
pictures taken from the air, the scientists found several possible elements of ancient architecture. In fact, to clear a 16-kilometer route through the forest to the ancient city, archaeologists have taken three weeks.
Rector of Moscow State University (MSU) Lomonosov Viktor Sadovnichiy proposed the creation of a national rather than an international ranking of universities, with headquarters in Russia. This he said in the Thursday, June 20, at a press conference at the RBC.
This measure, according to the rector, will have to improve the status of the Russian universities. “Our rating will have to show another approach to the evaluation of higher education institutions on the other, different from the Anglo-Saxon system of education”, – he explained.
“And this is our rating, whose headquarters would be in Russia, would enter into negotiations with the existing ratings, especially with Europe, he would have to show another approach to the evaluation of universities,” – said V.Sadovnichy.
Rector of the main university of the country, adding that Russia’s Moscow State University and other institutions of higher learning are fundamentally different from Western universities and comparing them is not entirely correct.
“The fact is that, for example, in the United States of America, and in England and other countries, science is at universities. All the leading laboratories, except for two or three national laboratories are located in universities, and, of course, is changes the situation a little bit in the parameter of citation. Ratings priority is given to this parameter, “- he said.
Despite this, said V. Sadovnichiy, to participate in international rankings necessary.
“In the major international rankings – only four or five parameters that are taken into account when evaluating the school. these options are not always suitable MSU,” – said the rector.
However, he said that in spite of this, three of the four international ratings of Moscow State University is in the top hundred.
“We entered the Shanghai ranking, although there are considered the main criterion for Nobel Prize winners, the citation index. 50th place in the ranking, we took the Times, in the Webometrics among the top twenty in the world, took seventh place in Europe and the second – in the BRICS “- added V.Sadovnichy.
note, in the creation of a national ranking of universities Russian authorities are ready to invest 25 mln., but now a single system of such a list is not, are not defined the criteria to be taken into account of the rating. On this occasion, in the scientific community have been discussions.
June 20, 2013
In Los Angeles 600 000 students. “Apple,” the company received a large order: city officials are purchasing for schools iPad. Local Board of Education has approved a deal with Apple for $ 30 million.
According to American experts, iPad better than other models, and thus they are less expensive.
program for the transition from paper to electronic textbooks would affect students from kindergarten to grade 12. Specially designed textbooks for schools in Los Angeles will deliver edition Pearson.
Now a Russian school runs an experiment on the use of tablets in the classroom, says CEO of “Smart Start” Alexander Pork: “In Russia attempted to conduct such experiments. There were two problems. There was good textbooks for such gadgets. Today in Russian education of good interesting interactive training materials do not. The second problem is that the system of education we have more conservative, and introduce something new is difficult. Although most schools today are equipped with interactive whiteboards, projectors have in the classroom. However, these new technologies are not used as they can be used. The issue with the same exam, using the Internet would be to transfer the material on the exam in 5 minutes prior to the examination does not necessarily send them letters that they can be pre-open ».
in U.S. schools is now used by about 10 million iPad. When the plates will be for all students in Los Angeles, the city will become the largest district of the country, where we have introduced electronic textbooks.
passed the Uniform state exams, which were accompanied by numerous scandals, many have a question, in what form will exist USE. At the same time, examination results, which showed that the publication of the answers on the internet is not particularly helped the graduates, this year proved to be much more honest than the previous. Such an assessment has given the vice-premier Olga Golodets, reports RIA “Novosti”.
“Now the results of honesty is much higher than last year,” – said Golodets. She noted that it is quite easy to define in terms of Losers, and tried to explain his point of view: “If, in a region Losers significantly less than the average, then the USE was dishonest. Thus, a simple comparison of numbers and proportions of obvious violation: when the number of standouts surpasses all imaginable submission, then immediately to the region leaves the commission with verification “.
Golodets has stated that the disciples of the Caucasian republics have shown good results, despite the fact that the violations in Chechnya and Dagestan have been recorded in the set. For example, recently it was reported that 600 works on biology were annulled and sent to double-check.
the Stavropol punished four officials responsible for organizing the exam
scandals have left their mark for the Stavropol region. As a result of an internal investigation into violations during the exam administration officials dismissed two of Stavropol. Two more were disciplined, “Interfax”.
“announced disciplinary Deputy Head of the Administration of Social Affairs Olga Kopeikin, the head of education department of the city administration to Elena Buksha. This work is ongoing, may be made and draw conclusions on a number of school leaders,” – said a source close to the investigation.
MSU Rector sure CSE in its current form can not exist
Meanwhile, for the reform of the unified state exam for students on Thursday made the rector of Moscow State University. University Viktor Sadovnichiy. He also criticized the idea to enter the exam for university graduates, RBC.
“I was one of those who opposed the introduction of constructive exam and saw the main danger. in the form in which the CSE exists now, it should not be. state exam as a tool needs to be improved,” – said Sadovnichiy. “We can lose very capable people – they may not respond well to the test questions. This is the first danger,” – he explained.
He also noted that the exam results in one-sided education. Sadovnichiy cited the example of students enrolled in the humanities who are not aware of the exact sciences, and vice versa. “They think,” the 24 points I am gathering, hiring a tutor. “Now at least Moscow in math – 24 points. I saw how much it is necessary to know the issues on 24 points, mathematics can not know at all,” – said the rector of Moscow State University.
He also suggested that in order to enter university graduate must pass additional tests – for example, to produce collected over the 10 years of schooling portfolio. Education Minister Dmitry Livanov previously also advocated the introduction of portfolio.
to CSE for graduates of the rector of Moscow State University attitude “very negative.” “It’s as much as I doubted the need for the introduction of such an action for school children. I believe that the exam to graduate – it’s just unacceptable. From my point of view, a graduate of the university, and especially Moscow State University – is a creative person, he must complete the University of presentation the thesis, which in many cases are published in good journals “- said Viktor Sadovnichiy.
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