Moscow, September 29, 2015, 22:53 – REGNUM How much is the Pythagorean theorem, and is it possible to commercialize science why it is so important to the rejuvenation of the Academy of Sciences, the scientist – “over” or “under” the authority who should manage science – scientist or official, that such solidarity scientists, what are the priorities of the Russian science, why science should be the mass, the problem of financing research and position of institutions outside Moscow – these and other questions were the subject of discussion and debate at the Round Table IA REGNUM «What science does Russia need? – Two years of reforming the Russian Academy of Sciences ».
« Two years have passed since the signing of the law number 253 on the reform of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and we can understand what happened, – Deputy President of the RAS Vladimir Ivanov , – we need to understand, is the expectation justified and where to go, especially since during this time the situation has changed not only in science but also in the world. ”
According to the scientist, it is important to decide what science needs Russia in connection with the new challenges and tasks. Assessing the outcome of reforming the Russian Academy of Sciences, he noted that the Academy of «world-class research organization actually turned into the scientific community» , which has neither the authority nor sufficient independence in choosing the direction of its activities.
«The average age of the scientists should be about 40 years old, – sure member of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences, director of the Institute of Oceanology. PP Shirshov, academician Robert Nigmatulin , – A science must be smart, advanced, secured instruments, a good resource base that is now terribly ».
According to the academician, Institute of Oceanology, forced to rent a court to be able to contain the fleet and to organize scientific expedition. Appeal to the head of the Russian Federation, in spite of these government orders, has not led to significant results. «This command is not executed, but since then has been two and a half years» , – stressed Robert Nigmatulin. He is convinced that science today requires real funding, as is the case in developed countries.
«How we became poor professor! I know what the salary we get the officials and the salary of a professor of Moscow State University – 10% of the salary of the deputy of the parliament. Even in Africa, such countries do not have this anti-record in the world! »
With regard to Academician Nigmatulin noted that the organization « should be conservative to all kinds of reorganizations ». However, changes are needed, chief among them – the rejuvenation of the academic staff.
«Currently, Russian Academy of Sciences, where the average age of 75 years, is unable to perform those functions which are assigned to it, – he stressed. – training of young people need to put the main task of the Russian Academy of Sciences ».
The problem of management of science has put at the round table Deputy Chairman of the Council for Science of the Ministry of Education and Science, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences Askold Ivanchyk . According to him, the main issue of reform, which is to decide who will manage the science – scientists or officials. Since the basic science developed mainly for public funds, officials need to decide what to allocate their research, and which are not. Of course, this gives substantial powers to officials.
«It’s a global situation, all officials are trying to expand their influence, – said Askold Ivanchyk, – Scientists in other countries have been able to reflect these efforts. In Germany, for example, the scientific community is almost autonomously. In France, officials have played a much greater role in the management of science. But in any of the countries do not have a situation where officials decide everything, and now Russia – a country ».
A special scientific community caused outrage last innovation of the Ministry of Education – to take control of an independent foundation to support research RFFI (Russian Fund for Basic Research) and RHF (Russian Humanitarian Science Foundation).
«We are planning to meet with the heads of the funds, – said Askold Ivanchyk, – to consider their activities, but members of the Council and I am strongly opposed to including. We believe that Science Foundation research funding should be independent from the policy of the ministry of public policy. The only criterion for allocation of funding should be performance . This is an expert function that can take only the representatives of the scientific community ».
« dominance of the bureaucracy “in science are concerned and the supervisor of the Institute of Economics, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences Ruslan Grinberg .
«The number of reports, the number of criteria that need to be guided, the number of forms that need to be filled prohibitively» , – he said – but the most important thing – there is no escape from this. Regarding the commercialization of science, which insists officials, scientists noticed:
«How much cost the Pythagorean theorem? It does not cost anyone is not needed, nothing has changed. Maxwell’s equations are paid for all the costs of basic science all over the world for the next 200 years. I mean electricity. But the equations themselves are worthless. Understanding this phenomenon of fundamental science can not penetrate the souls of people who make decisions. ”
According to the scientist, we have developed the plutocracy – the realm of the rich, who are not interested in the existence of an independent science. «The whole world is happy with it – nobody wants Russian science in spite of all sorts of oohs-aahs what you were good in 50-60s» . Installation of current managers that should pay for everything – from the hospital to the grave – Ruslan Grinberg called old-fashioned and archaic. «If we do not show solidarity, the destruction of RAS becomes a fact».
About the Solidarity scientists and trade union activity of the RAS told its chairman, head of the laboratory of the Institute of General Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences. AM Prokhorov Victor Kalinushkin . «The union works quite actively, fights, there is support» , – he said and added that to address the challenges posed by the President of Russia on import substitution and defense, need a mass science .
«not solve this kind of problem the small group of scientists, no matter how well they were equipped with. Now, unfortunately, there is a tendency opposite », – he said, stressing that the task of raising salaries scholar officials want to solve the simplest way: without increasing funding, and reducing the number of scientists.
«The professor then perhaps will receive, as a deputy, – said Victor Kalinushkin, – Only few of them will. Need a massive science problems need to ensure decent wages to solve not through mass reduction of scientists under the word that only 20% of scientists give 90% of production and 80% – a swamp, compote, jelly. It can not be done! After two years of reforming the Russian Academy of Sciences, due to the fact that a moratorium of two years, which stood at the head of Fano reasonable people who do not carry out any sudden movements, there is not much wrong. ”
However, the overall results of the reform and the state of the science, scientists estimated so: « Better not become anyone!»
Degrees discussion raised the Vice-President of Russian Nanotechnology Society, a mathematician at the world famous Institute of Applied Mathematics. MV Keldysh Gennady Malinetskii . Connecting three academies: medical, agricultural and RAS itself – into a single structure he called a chimera, a hybrid terrible
«… a snake, lion and goat . Well, the snake apparently – Medical Academy, the goat – the cattle, it Agricultural Academy, and the abode of scientific Lions – Russian Academy of Sciences. The stupidity and absurdity! This is a fundamentally different things. What makes the Russian Academy of Sciences, may need 50-100 years, it is a science with far sight, but what does the Academy of Medical Sciences, it is necessary today! »
He is outraged by the department of RAS institutes the Academy itself as if his head separated from his body. The merger of the institutions as absurd, for example, the connection into a single structure of the Institute of Applied Mathematics and the Institute of mathematical modeling.
«This is nonsense! Why should we reduce the variety? As they say specialists in control theory, one of the important things – the management of diversity. The variety – the power of the Academy of Sciences, is that it has regional institutions, different institutions, different approaches. Even at MSU five economics departments. And this is normal”.
According to the scientist, Fano decided to experimentally verify Lenin’s slogan that every cook can run the state.
«Can a pompohoz manage science – Assistant of the business? It is very important people – is the chairs, tables, everything to be swept. I am their deep respect, but in a nightmare could not have dreamed that thousands of institutions of the three academies will manage pompohozy! »
That from basic science to expect any immediate, fast results by According to the scientist, too absurd. He cited the words of Mstislav Keldysh, the head of the Academy of Sciences in the Soviet era, who was fond of quoting Francis Bacon: “A man who stumbles, but moving in the right direction, always overtake him who runs, but in the wrong direction.” The main directions and tasks of science today, says Gennady Malinetskii – is to ensure Russia’s defense industry, as well as an emphasis on biology, because the XXI century – the century of biology.
«Every dollar invested in the United States in the program” Human Genome “, gave $ 140 profit. No such development does not know! », – he stressed.
The country is facing the problem of medicine, as Russia – in the 124th place in the world in terms of health. And again, if the XX century was the century of the individual items, say, nuclear bombs, our century – a century systems. That is why we need to design the future. It regularly makes Japan every five years, a number of leading scientists and entrepreneurs carried indicative planning.
«They have taken our experience, – exclaims the scientist, recalling the Gosplan, – Now, let’s take the Japanese!»
« middle ground “in the relations between science and government officials tried to find a round table representative of the Republic of Buryatia in the Federation Council, Corresponding Member of Russian Academy of Sciences Arnold Tulokhonov . He urged his colleagues not to be limited “Yaroslavna’s Lament” and to develop a document that could be presented for discussion by the senators. He noted that the lack of unity of science management, its spray between the Ministry of Education, Fano, research foundations, universities, etc., does not allow even to ask someone about the results of the reform.
«We faced the fact that in Russia is not responsible for Science » , – said Arnold Tulokhonov.
Speaking on the topic, what science needs Russia, he recalled Khrushchev, whom no one has ever considered an educated person. Nevertheless, Khrushchev in 1957 created the Siberian Branch of the Academy of Sciences, realizing that developing Siberia without science is impossible. It was built in the ‘best in the world until now Akademgorodok “.
«Today the Head of State represents the priorities of Russia in the XXI century – the economic development of Siberia and the Far East, – noted the senator. – What makes Mr. Lebanon? My question is, what matters is reinforced by the words of President you, he can not answer. His eyes dreamboat – to close under the guise of inefficient universities and the Academy of Sciences in Tuva, Buryatia, Blagoveshchensk, Chita, etc. »
By the self-criticism called on the audience Deputy Director of the Institute for Systems Analysis Alexander Shvetsov .
«Adoption of the Federal Law number 253 – is the act that started the process of destruction, collapse of academic science in Russia. In this process, there is another side. We refer generally reproaches outside enemy we fully behind the ramparts, it is. But we must be self-critical – a large share of the blame for what happened Academy of Sciences. 20 years of reform were held with the leadership of the Academy of total immaturity. Consolidated position was not surrendered unconditionally. Two years ago, there was nothing unexpected. The objectives of the reform has been declared in the Yeltsin government. Boris Saltykov, who in the early 90′s implemented state policy in the field of science, admitted in the 2000s that even then, in the 90s, they made a conscious choice in favor of the American model of the organization of science. The goal was and the choice was made then. And the Academy of Sciences did not react, she rested on his laurels ».
Unfortunately, in the course of the discussion it became clear that, as noted by Academician Nigmatulin, not visible power in the Russian Academy of Sciences, which are able to reverse the trend . And Gennady Malinetskii general said that the Academy “rotten” and continues to hold the position of “sit right” pursued by the previous leadership of RAS. “Maybe it was over the life cycle of the RAS?”, – Said Alexander Shvetsov colleagues. In either case, all it is evident that the situation is difficult.
«We are standing at a fork, – summed up the discussion of the Deputy President of Russian Academy of Sciences Vladimir Ivanov, – , we came to a particular point of bifurcation, as mathematicians say, and need to understand where to go . Either we go the usual way, where we will dictate terms “Higher School of Economics”, Academy of National Economy – which, incidentally, took a big part in the preparation of ideology under the law number 253 – or will be accepted by other policies to ensure the sovereignty of the state in its entirety . Hence, it is necessary to determine which need science. In the first case, science is necessary only in the universities and elsewhere to prepare qualified consumers. In the second case, the science – the leading productive force, as is done in all developed powers ».
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