the Founder of SpaceX Elon Musk at the International Astronautical Congress in Guadalajara of the Mexican told about the plans of SpaceX to colonize Mars and turn humanity into multiplanetary civilization.
“Martian” speech Mask has long been expected and was announced widely to researchers, journalists and just fans of the businessman wondered about some new projects he will tell and do not moderate their ambitions for development of the Solar system, especially after the recent explosion of the rocket Falcon.
it Turns out that for the full development of Mars, an ambitious entrepreneur, you will need only a thousand space ships, capable of hauling about a hundred people.
Previously, Musk has repeatedly made statements that he believes the only chance for the survival of humanity turning it into multiplanetary civilization. It is necessary to colonize the Solar system, and it should start with Mars. As explained by Elon Musk in his speech, the conditions on Venus and mercury are too severe, the satellites of the giant planets are too far away, and on the moon there is no required amount of resources. To date, Mars is the only candidate for the first extraterrestrial human settlement. The goal of SpaceX is to create on the red planet fully Autonomous human settlement.
According to experts, today the cost of sending one person to Mars is approaching $ 10 billion, Max believes that full colonization will be possible at the cost of one-way flight in a few hundred thousand dollars, which is comparable to the cost of a typical private house in the United States.
“Ticket should cost a few hundred thousand dollars,” said Musk.
For a similar cheaper flights, mankind must solve many of the problems associated with the delivery of goods to the Red planet. It is the ability to refuel in space, processability and funding resources, as well as the creation of fuel on the Mars. Musk also stressed that all elements of the Martian expansion should be reusable. A Boeing 747 costs about $ 90 million, but we buy a ticket and fly because Boeing can fly many times, ” explained the entrepreneur is its main idea. — If the rocket to do not reusable, the cost of starting immediately increases five times.”
While the plan for the creation of the settlement as follows. After completion of the main works on the improvement of launch vehicles, the Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy, the company will be engaged in the design and development of a new superheavy rocket, tentatively called Mars Vehicle. This will be a two-stage rocket.
the fuel and oxidizer booster will use a pair of methane — oxygen, methane might produce on Mars is not as difficult to store as other fuels.
the First step will be made of composite carbon fiber. Its height is 77 m, diameter — 12 m. This is 2 m longer than the base of the famous rocket “Saturn-5″, to deliver astronauts to the moon. The Mars Vehicle will be capable of lifting 550 tons of payload against 135 tons of the “Saturn-5″. As the engine booster will use the latest engines Raptor. Musk stresses that at the moment it is the most powerful rocket engine, superior traction engine Falcon 9 Merlin three times. The first stage will have a 42 of these engines, seven of which are Central, will have a thrust vector control for maneuvering.
by the Way, 26 September 2016, held its first bench tests of the Raptor. The tests were successful.
the Second stage of the Mars rocket will be the same spaceship that will take settlers to the Red planet. While conventionally, the ship is called the Interplanetary Transport System (Besplptnoe transport system). It will have a height of 49.5 m, a diameter of 17 m and weight of about 150 tons. It is planned that the spacecraft will be able to carry about a hundred people in fairly comfortable conditions. “The design on the liner. Bored on Board will not” — said Elon Musk.
the Mars project first Vehicle delivers the spaceship to an intermediate orbit. Then the first step goes back to the launch pad and re-start with a fuel tank that is intended for fueling of the Mars Shuttle in earth orbit. It is possible that such filling will take several flights. After that, interplanetary transport can be sent to the red planet.
At the landing it doesn’t use parachutes, and sits on its own engines. This makes possible its use on nearly all Solar system bodies. Interplanetary transport is a reusable ship, which will make regular trips between Earth and Mars.
estimates SpaceX, enough for about 7% of the initial amount of fuel that the Shuttle was able to come back from Mars.
Musk believes that over time, the cost of such flights will be reduced, and the time is reduced. The average flight time between planets Elon Musk is estimated at 115 days, and in the future it be reduced to 88 days. Launches of interplanetary transporters is planned to be implemented during periods of confrontation between Earth and Mars. According to the Mask, to create a fully Autonomous Mars settlement will require approximately 1 thousand interplanetary ships, each of which will have to make 10-15 flights. All ships will have to carry about 1 million people.
For the project to resettle 1 million people to Mars, estimated to SpaceX, should go from 40 to 100 years.
Elon Musk estimates the level of required investment of $ 2 billion a year. The money will be collected for sponsorship and partnership programs, and crowdfunding.
But Musk says that Interplanetary Transport System can fly much further than Mars. Theoretically such transporters could get to the asteroids, the satellites of the giant planets and even Pluto. All you need to do is to create a network of space refueling. In fact, gradually replenishing the fuel reserves on a space “gas stations”, the interplanetary transport can fly anywhere, says Musk.
Also, Elon Musk has mentioned that SpaceX plans to 2018 — launch of the joint NASA unmanned mission to the Red Dragon with the subsequent landing on the surface of Mars. Red Dragon is a modified version of the spacecraft Dragon V2. Start planning to implement with the help of the carrier rocket Falcon Heavy.
After the presentation, the SpaceX founder was asked many questions about the place of Assembly of rockets, SpaceX, radiation and even treatment methods the Martian deserts from the products of human activity.
a Representative of NASA was interested in how will launch and which will be collected such big missiles, because to deliver such a machine by truck is not possible. Musk said that the first launches will be conducted from the platform 39A, and to assemble the rocket at the launch site from components.
the Girl Anastasia from Russia interested in how to get a job in the company Mask. But it turned out that there are serious barriers puts us legislation and the Ministry of defence.
On the question of whether this one-way journey, Musk gave the example of the first colonists in America. Many of them remained on the continent, but some returned to the Old world. Any Martian colonists should be able to return to Earth.
you only Need to pay the cost of the return ticket.
No special training of future colonists will be required. Conditions on Board are very comfortable. About the dangers of interplanetary radiation, Musk explained that is engaged in the development of the engineering side of the flight. Perhaps by the time it is completed there will be new protection technologies. Moreover, the danger is mainly radiation during solar emissions. In any case, 100 days of flights will provide non-lethal dose of radiation, says the businessman.
Despite universal adoration, to the end of the meeting intelligent questions of technological character began to dry up. One of the girls is asked to come up on stage and kiss the Mask, another guest Astronautical Congress somehow decided to ask a question about unmanned buses. “Today I answer questions about space”, — joked the businessman, refusing to kiss on stage.
In his speech, Musk stressed that it is important to popularize Mars. Maybe that would have pushed the world community to competition and cooperation. To the question about personal involvement in the relocation to Mars Elon Musk said that the first flights will be associated with an increased risk for the participants.
He is not willing to put his life in danger as she is afraid to leave the company without leadership.
Musk is aware of the dangers of the first flights to Mars. “You ready to die? Then you are a candidate for sending. The chances of dying are high for the first mission,” said the businessman, not saying where and how it is supposed to survive the first colonists on Mars.
Recall that after the fire at launch complex company SpaceX promises to resume flights of their rockets in November 2016.