Sunday, October 2, 2016

Scientists have found the cause of friendship between dogs and people – The Russian Times

All the animals sought to attract human attention and to make people helped them. Scientists taught the behavior of the 500 dogs in the weather, “hound” at a time when they needed to solve problems, to cope with which without human intervention is impossible. It was the fact that the dog could get the treat from the tightly closed jars. Any dog placed in a room with an unknown stranger. Scientists in turn were placed in the room each dog, and with it the man. In the end it turned out that dogs have 5 genes that act on the relationship between animals and humans.

researchers from the University of linköping has established why dogs are much more friendly to humans than other animals, including Pets. Experts conducted an experiment involving 437 dogs of the Beagle breed. All animals were grown in special conditions – outside of close contact with a person.

In the course of the experiment the animals were put in a room where there were 3 containers of food. Two of them just opened, and to open the third, they needed extra help. In the room was present and the man and the dog he was unfamiliar. Scholars interested in the behavior of the animal: whether a dog asking a stranger to help him or try to cope on your own.

it turned Out that not all dogs have been in contact, however, there were 95 individuals. They had taken DNA samples, which are compared with those that were unfriendly animals. In the end, it was identified 5 specific genes that determine the propensity of animals to their close Association with man.

the Mechanism of action of genes “friendliness” has not yet been identified. Research continues.

Scholars interested in how subjects behave in such a situation, will they start asking a stranger for help, or will act independently.

“We know that wolves do not seek help, they will try to fix the problem yourself, and some dogs actually behave the same — they do not give up and attempt to open the lid,” says one of the researchers Per Jensen. — But the most common reaction of animals is at some point in time to contact the person.”

According to the results of the experiments were selected 95 dogs are most prone to human contact, and 95 the least interested in social interaction with the person. Then they took samples of DNA for comparison and detection of correlations between features in the behavior and specific genetic variants.

In the end, scientists were able to identify five genes that are closely correlated with the tendency of dogs to seek the help of a man. “There are probably many other genes that interact with these five,” admits Jensen. According to him, it is not yet clear precisely how the identified genes can affect the sociability of dogs.

it is also Noted that four of these genes have previously been associated with increased risk of development of various social disorders in humans, including autism, writes The Guardian.

Among all subjects was chosen as the 95 dogs, who asked the man to help them, and 95 dogs, who showed independence. As a result of studying their DNA was discovered five genes that are responsible for the communication of the dog with man. In this four-gene was related to man. It is noted that mutations in these genes can lead to social disorders. At the same time, researchers noted that genetics can explain about 30% of cases, the friendliness of the dog against the man, and the rest influenced by other factors, including education.

In the next phase of the study, the researchers compared the DNA samples of 95 “most social” and the 95 “least social” dogs. As it turned out, first of all the first from the second is different from other variations of five genes is likely responsible for the behavior. Experts emphasize that a dog’s affection for the man certainly is “responsible” many genes in complex interaction with each other, but the five of them have been allocated, can play a key role.

Experts say that the human genes “related” discovered in dogs, is also involved in the regulation of behavior, and their mutations can cause autism.

the Results of their study, the scientists presented in the journal Science Reports.


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