Wednesday, October 5, 2016

Mechanical miniatures: the Nobel prize in chemistry was awarded to inventors of nanoscale – Вести.Ru

Nobel week continues. We now know the names of the Nobel prize in chemistry Jean-Pierre Sauvage from France (Jean-Pierre Sauvage), sir James Fraser Stoddart from Scotland and Bernard Feringa from the Netherlands.

the Nobel prize in chemistry in 2016 was awarded to three scientists for “the design and synthesis of molecular mechanisms”. On the website of the Nobel Committee said the researchers first developed the smallest movements in the world — molecules with controlled movements, which can perform various tasks when power is applied.

the Miniaturisation of technology has led to a real revolution. Nobel laureates in chemistry 2016 reduced mechanisms so that brought chemistry to a whole new level.

the First step towards a molecular mechanism was made by Savage in 1983, when he successfully joined the two loop-shaped molecules together to form chemical compounds, which was later called catenanes. Explain that catenary is a class of substances consisting of two or more loop-like molecules linked by a mechanical connection (as opposed to chemical). As a rule, the molecules are linked to the strong covalent bonds in which atoms share electrons, but in this chain (catenin) they were connected by a relatively loose mechanical coupling.

Any mechanism able to perform a certain task, must consist of parts that can move relative to each other. Two coupled ring is fully consistent with this requirement.

the Second step in this direction was taken by Stoddart in 1991, when he developed rotaksan. This class of compounds includes a molecule panteleimonas shape and a ring-shaped molecule, “worn” on it.

Scientist molecular ring threaded on a thin molecular axis, and for the first time demonstrated that the ring in this case is able to move along the axis. It is noted that among the developments of the scientist on the basis of rotaxane – molecular Elevator, the first “molecular muscle” and computer chips on the basis of molecules.

Feringa – third of today’s Nobel prize in chemistry – was the first man who developed a molecular motor, or the motor (molecular motor). In 1999, he created a molecular blade for a rotor, rotating constantly in one direction.

Subsequently, using a molecular motor, it rotated glass cylinder, which was ten thousand times more than the microscopic engine. He also created the first moving nanomachine.

From the development point of view, molecular motors are now on the same stage, and electric motor in the 1830s. Then the scientists demonstrated various rotating arm and wheel and still didn’t know what the development will lead to the emergence of trains, washing machines, fans and food processors. In short, everything without which modern society is inconceivable.

the Molecular mechanisms, most likely in the future will be used to develop new “smart” materials, sensors or energy storage systems. Also, scientists have been dreaming about the creation of microscopic robots that, for example, are launched into the blood vessels of the person to search for a cancer at a stage when the patient still will be on her to heal. Today our readers know about these amazing developments, like a molecular train which moves on rails of DNA and completely artificial molecular pump.

we Add that the Nobel prize 2015 for chemistry was awarded to Swede Thomas Lindal’, American Paul Modric and Turkish genetics Aziz Sankara for the discovery of the molecular mechanism of repair, by which cells repair damaged DNA and keep genetic information.

Recall that Monday started the Nobel week, then announced the prize winner in physiology and medicine: he became a Japanese scientist, asinari Osumi. The day later became known Nobel laureates in physics: awarded will be from three scientists who opened the door to an unknown world.

the ceremony will be held on December 10 – the day of death of Nobel prize founder, Swedish entrepreneur and inventor Alfred Nobel.


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