Wednesday, October 5, 2016

The Nobel prize in chemistry was given for “the little machine” – RBK

the Winners of the Nobel prize in chemistry ran-Pierre Sauvage, James Fraser Stoddart and Bernard Feringa (left to right) on the laptop screen during a press conference

Photo: Jonathan Nackstrand/AFP

representatives of the United States, France and the Netherlands received the award for “the development and creation of molecular machines”

the Nobel prize in chemistry 2016 received three scientists — Frenchman Jean-Pierre Sauvage, the Dutchman Bernard Feringa and American of Scottish descent James Fraser Stoddart. In a press release, the Nobel Committee noted that the prize awarded to them “for the development and creation of molecular machines.”

the winners of the 2016 divide among themselves in equal shares, the cash prize in the amount of 8 million Swedish kronor (approximately $ 933,6 thousand).

Jean-Pierre Sauvage was born in 1944 in Paris, in 1990 he was elected a corresponding member of the French Academy of Sciences, in 1997, became its full member. Currently holds the post of Professor at the University of Strasbourg Louis Pasteur, specializiruetsya in the field of supramolecular chemistry.

James Fraser Stoddart was born in 1942 in Edinburgh, is a member of the National Academy of Sciences USA, American Academy of arts and Sciences, the Royal society of London. Works at northwestern University (Chicago, USA), a specialist in the field of supramolecular chemistry and nanotechnology.

Bernard Feringa was born in 1951 in Barger-Compascuum. Vice-President of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences, foreign member of the American Academy of arts and Sciences, works in the field of stereochemistry, homogeneous catalysis and molecular nanotechnology.

In 2015 the Nobel prize in chemistry was awarded to Swede Thomas Lindal’, American Paul Modric and a native of Turkey, Aziz Sinjar “for the mechanistic studies of DNA repair”, at the molecular level, showed how cells repair damaged DNA and keep genetic information.

“Their work has had a fundamental knowledge about the functions of living cells and, for example, their use in the development of new cancer treatments,” — said in the press release of the Nobel Committee.

From 1901 to 2015 Nobel prize in chemistry was awarded 107 times, over the years, it became the winners 172, 63 scholars received the award alone, 23 times the award was divided between the two winners and 21 times between the three.

most Often, “chemical Nobel prize” was awarded for work in the field of biochemistry (50 times), organic chemistry (43%) and physical chemistry (38 times).

Women received the “Nobel prize” in chemistry four times, the first this honor was awarded in 1911 for discovery of radium and polonium by Maria Sklodowska-Curie. In 1935, the daughter of Maria, Irene Joliot-Curie shared the prize with her husband Frederic Joliot-Curie. In 1964, the biochemist Dorothy Crowfoot-Hodgkin received the Nobel prize “for determination using x-ray structures of biologically active substances”, and in 2009 an Israeli crystallographer Ada Yonath shared the prize with two colleagues “for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome”.

the Only man in history to twice receive the Nobel prize in chemistry, was a British biochemist Frederick Sanger (1958, “for the establishment of structures of proteins, especially of insulin,” and in 1980 “for contributions to the establishment of the basic sequences in nucleic acids”). In addition, the laureate of 1911, Marie Curie in 1903 was awarded the Nobel prize in physics and winner of the 1954 Linus Pauling in 1962 received the Nobel peace prize.

The youngest Nobel laureate in chemistry in the entire history of the award, the French scientist Frederic Joliot-Curie, received the award in 35 years, the American scientist John Bennett Fenn, who received it in 85 years. The average age of a laureate in chemistry 58.

most of awarded the Nobel prize in chemistry, scientists from the United States (63). The only chemist from our country, who received the Nobel prize in 1956 party of the Soviet atomic project Nikolai Semenov, who developed the theory of chain reactions (the award is also given to Cyril Hinshelwood).

Two Nobel prize laureates — German scientists Richard Kuhn and Adolf Butenandt award in 1938-1939, was forced to abandon it at the insistence of the authorities of the Third Reich. Their medals and diplomas scientists received after the end of world war II.

Earlier this week were named winners of the Nobel prize of 2016 in medicine and physics. First received, Yoshinori Osumi (for “discoveries in the field of autophagy cells”), the second Briton Duncan Halden and Americans of Scottish descent David Toles and Michael Kosterlitz (“for the theoretical discovery of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter”).


No comments:

Post a Comment