STOCKHOLM, 4 Oct. /Offset. TASS Irina Dergacheva/. Nobel prize of 2016 in physics awarded to employees in the U.S. British scientist David Thouless, Duncan Haldane and Michael Kosterlitz.
As announced the Nobel Committee at the Royal Academy of Sciences, the award will be presented “for the theoretical discovery of the topological phase transition and a topological phase of matter”.
it is Noted that British scientists “opened the door to a world in which matter may take the unusual condition.” “The winners used advanced mathematical methods to study these States, for example, superfluidity and superconductivity,” reads the website of the Nobel Committee. These discoveries can then be used in electronics, in particular, when creating superconductors and quantum computers of the future.
“Like everyone else, I was very surprised – said one of the winners – Haldane – about how the news of the award. – When I started to work on this topic in the late 1980s, I didn’t even think that it will be able to find a use for. Now it’s confirmed, although open is still very much.” On the question of how they managed to make a discovery, Haldane noted that he “tried to understand and prove that something else was wrong. As with most other discoveries, we just stumbled up on it. To understand what you’ve discovered, it takes time”.
David Thouless was born in 1934 in Bearsden, Scotland. Today he is a Professor at the University of Washington (USA). Professor Duncan Haldane 65 years. He was born in London and works in Princeton University in USA. Professor Kosterlitz 73. He was born in Aberdeen (Scotland) and works at brown University in the United States.
About the Nobel prize in physics
the Prize is awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Its working body is the Nobel Committee for physics, whose members are elected by the Academy for three years. The right to nominate candidates for the award have scientists from different countries, including members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and Nobel prize winners in physics, who received a special invitation from the Committee.
to Offer candidates September to 31 January of the following year.
the First prize in 1901 was awarded to Wilhelm Roentgen (Germany) for the discovery of radiation named after him. Among the most famous laureates Joseph Thomson (UK), recorded in 1906 for the study of the passage of electricity through gases; albert Einstein (Germany), who received the award in 1921 for his discovery of law of photoelectric effect; Niels Bohr (Denmark), awarded in 1922 for the study of the atom; John Bardeen (USA), winner prize (1956 – for research on semiconductors and discovery of the transistor effect 1972 for theory of superconductivity).
At the moment the list of awardees 200 people (including Bardeen, who was awarded twice). Only two women were awarded this prize: in 1903
Marie Curie shared it with her husband Pierre Curie and Antoine Henri Becquerel (for the study of the phenomenon of radioactivity), and in 1963, Mary Goppert-Mayer (USA) received the prize together with Eugene Vigneron (USA) and Hans Jensen (Germany) for work in the field structure of the atomic nucleus.
Among the winners of the 12 Soviet and Russian physicists, and scientists with dual citizenship or who was born and educated in the Soviet Union.
In 2015 the prize was divided Kajita Takaaki (Japan) and Arthur MacDonald (Canada), who discovered neutrino oscillations which indicates that neutrinos have mass.”
he 1901-2015 prize in physics was awarded 109 times in 1916, 1931, 1934, 1940-1942 gg failed to find a worthy candidate). 32 the prize was divided between two winners and 30 between the three. The average age of the laureates is 55 years. Still the youngest winner of the prize for physics remains 25-year-old Englishman Lawrence Bragg (1915) and the oldest – 88-year-old American Raymond Davis (2002).
Nominee and winner: how well do you know the history of the Nobel prize?