Wednesday, October 5, 2016

Topological vortices: awarded the Nobel prize in physics – TASS

Michael Kosterlitz

© Roni Rekomaa/Lehtikuva via AP

4 Oct Nobel prize in physics were American scientists David Taules, Michael Kosterlitz and Duncan Haldane “for the theoretical discovery of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter.” Half of the prize received Taules, the remaining half divided Kosterlitz and Haldane. Read more about scientists and their discovery — in the material TASS.

what is the open?

  • Scientists have discovered unexpected behavior of solid materials and used advanced mathematical methods for explaining such unusual States of matter like superconductivity and superfluidity.
  • In the early 1970s, Taules and Kosterlitz his experiments refuted the allegations that superconductivity cannot exist at low temperatures, and may explain why it disappears when heated.
  • however, they found that the conductivity in very thin materials (thickness of one atom) is changed stepwise. In the 1980s, Taules and Haldane could explain this gradation using topology — section of mathematics that studies the connectivity of spaces and objects with deformations.
  • Thanks to the theoretical description of the scientists could explain why the electrical resistance in thin layers of matter is changed stepwise with increasing induction of a magnetic field applied.

Practical application

  • the scientists ‘ Work will subsequently help in the development of new materials with new properties.
  • Open can be used in electronics, in particular when creating superconductors and quantum computers.

Nobel in physics: five interesting facts from the history of the award

What the experts say?

  • Doctor of physico-mathematical Sciences, Deputy Director of the Institute for theoretical physics. L. D. Landau, RAS Michael, feigelman explained why Taules received the major part of the award. “I understand why Taules allocated among these three. The fact that the Taules belong to the most important results of at least two different fundamental tasks. One of them — and it is their joint Kosterlitz the result of 1973-1974. — very unusual at that time, the theory of phase transition in two-dimensional systems, which is applicable to the melting of two-dimensional crystal, and to the destruction of superconductivity or superfluidity in thin films, and to lots of things like that.”
  • Head of research group of Russian quantum centre, Alexei Rubtsov noted that in theory Kosterlitz taules and the main role is played by quantum vortices (topological defect, which is manifested in superfluid and superconductors). “Before this work it was considered that in two-dimensional systems thin films superconductivity can not be. It turns out that it is, but its properties are very different from properties of bulk materials, because a very important role is played by topological defects, namely vortices,” — said Scar.

Who’s David Taules?

  • Born September 21, 1934 in Bearsden (Scotland, UK). In 1955 he graduated from Cambridge University in 1958, received his doctorate at Cornell University (USA).
  • was Professor of mathematical physics at Birmingham University (UK), 1980 — Professor of physics at the University of Washington in Seattle (USA).
  • Made a significant contribution to the development of such branches of physics as condensed matter physics and the theory of many bodies.

Who’s Duncan Haldane?

  • Born September 14, 1951 in London. In 1973 he graduated from Cambridge University in 1978 where he also received his doctorate.
  • In 1977-1981 he was a member of the Institute Laue-Langevin (Grenoble, France) and taught at the University of California, San Diego (USA), since 1990 — Professor at Princeton University (USA).
  • One of the main directions of its activity — physics of condensed matter.

Who is Michael Kosterlitz?

  • Born in 1942 in Aberdeen (Scotland, UK). In 1965 he graduated from the College named Gonville and Kaya, University of Cambridge, in 1969 he received his doctorate at Oxford University.
  • Taught at the University of Birmingham (UK) and at Cornell University (USA). Since 1982 Professor at brown University (USA).
  • Conducts research in the field of statistical physics and condensed matter physics.

learn More about, and was awarded the Nobel prize in physics, visit the website of the popular science portal “Attic”

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